Bacteria could survive travel between Earth and Mars when forming aggregates

The hypothesis called “panspermia” proposes an interplanetary transfer of life. Microbes inside shielding material such as rocks could be protected from UV-irradiation and survive during space travel as supported by the “lithopanspermia” theory. In this study, researchers show that even without rock shielding, aggregates of bacteria, if thick enough, could survive outer space conditions for several years, raising the new concept of “massapanspermia”.