Harmonizing models and observations by Earth system science data assimilation

The data assimilation (DA), which enabled models and observations cooperate with each other in harmony, has the potential to become a common methodology for Earth system science (ESS) overall and its branches. Now, researchers analyzes the development of DA theories and methods from various perspectives, including applications in the main fields of ESS, the origins of the research paradigm, the evolution of theories and methods, and future trends and challenges.