Electric field modulation of the graphene-adsorbate interaction induces unique van der Waals (vdW) bonding which were previously assumed to be randomized by thermal energy after the electric field is turned off. We show that the vdW bonding lasts for hours after turning-off the electric field, exhibiting a charge-transfer and carrier scattering memory useful for ‘beyond sensing’ applications in molecular identification, memory devices and conformational switches.
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