HIV-1 viral cores enter the nucleus collectively through the nuclear endocytosis-like pathway

How HIV-1 viral cores enter the nucleus through the undersized nuclear pore remains mysterious. By multi labelling of viral and cellular components and dynamically tracking, researchers observed that HIV-1 selectively gathered at the microtubule organization center, leading the nearby nuclear envelope to undergo deformation, invagination and restoration to form a nuclear vesicle in which the viral particles were wrapped; then, the inner membrane of the nuclear vesicle ruptured to release HIV-1 viral cores into the nucleus.