To conduct his analysis, Kipping used the chronology of the earliest evidence for life and the evolution of humanity. David Kipping, assistant professor of astronomy at Columbia, asked how often we would expect life and intelligence to re-emerge if Earth’s history were to repeat, re-running the clock over and over again. He concludes that if planets with similar conditions and evolutionary time lines to Earth are common, life should have little problem spontaneously emerging on other planets.
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